Cider flavour standards kit used to train professional cider tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of eight essential cider flavour notes.
Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of cider flavour cards.
AROXA™ certified cider flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don’t forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.
The importance and origins of each flavour are:
Flavour: ACETALDEHYDE Chemical name: ACETALDEHYDE
“Acetaldehyde, like green apple, fermenting fruit or emulsion paint”
IMPORTANCE: Acetaldehyde is present in all ciders. Low levels of acetaldehyde contribute to apple character, cleanness and complexity of cider. Acetaldehyde is an off-flavour at high concentrations when the note resembles emulsion paint.
ORIGINS: Acetaldehyde is produced by yeast during fermentation. High levels of acetaldehyde are indicative of fermentation problems, poor control of dissolved oxygen during maturation or packaging or spoilage by Zymomonas bacteria.
Flavour: DIACETYL Chemical name: 2,3-BUTANEDIONE
“Diacetyl, like butter, butter popcorn, or warm milk”
IMPORTANCE: Diacetyl is a desirable flavour in some ciders, and an off-flavour in others. In traditional ciders it arises from secondary fermentation with malo-lactic bacteria. Such ciders have higher levels of 2,3-butanedione compared with those produced more rapidly, without a malo-lactic fermentation.
ORIGINS: Produced in cider from a precursor formed by yeast during fermentation. Diacetyl can also be formed by contaminant lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus and Pediococcus.
Flavour: SOUR Chemical name: CITRIC ACID
“Sour, like lemon juice, acidic”
IMPORTANCE: Sour flavour notes is one of five basic tastes found in cider and a major differentiator of styles and products. The material is odourless and can only be detected by tasting.
ORIGINS: Acidity in cider is derived from both fruit acids and metabolism of yeast and lactic acid bacteria during processing. It can be divided into non-volatile and volatile acidity. Citric acid represents the non-volatile fraction.
Flavour: ETHYL ACETATE Chemical name: ETHYL ACETATE
“Ethyl acetate, like nail varnish or nail varnish remover”
IMPORTANCE: Ethyl acetate is present in all ciders, and the ester found in greatest amounts in cider. It imparts a solvent-like note to cider which at low levels contributes to flavour balance. Excessive levels of acetic acid, in combination with the presence of acetic acid, contribute to ‘volatile acidity’.
ORIGINS: Ethyl acetate is produced by yeast during fermentation. The amount of ethyl acetate formed depends on juice composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Some wild yeasts produce very high levels of ethyl acetate.
Flavour: ETHYL HEXANOATE Chemical name: ETHYL HEXANOATE
“Ethyl hexanoate, like artificial apple, or aniseed”
IMPORTANCE: Ethyl hexanoate is an ester which is present in all ciders and a contributor to the complexity of apple flavour character. Concentrations of ethyl hexanoate vary from cider to cider.
ORIGINS: Ethyl hexanoate is produced by yeast during fermentation. The amount formed depends on juice composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Some wild yeasts produce high levels of ethyl hexanoate.
Flavour: BAND AID Chemical name: 4-ETHYL PHENOL
“Band aid, like blue cheese or band aid”
IMPORTANCE: 4-Ethyl phenol imparts an unpleasant band aid-like character to cider, described by some as ‘barny’ or ‘horsey’. At low levels the odour resembles that of leather. In traditional ciders, growth of Brettanomyces can add complexity to the product, helping to differentiate it from other ciders.
ORIGINS: 4-Ethyl phenol is produced by contaminant Brettanomyces (Dekkera) yeasts and, occasionally by lactic acid bacteria, during cider production. Ciders which are low in sulphur dioxide are particularly sensitive to growth of such microorganisms.
Flavour: H2S Chemical name: HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
“H2S, like boiled eggs or rotten eggs”
IMPORTANCE: Hydrogen sulphide is present in all ciders. Concentrations of H2S vary considerably from one cider to another. H2S is an off-flavour at high concentrations but contributes positively to cider flavour complexity when present in low amounts. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help minimize formation of H2S. Copper treatment of finished cider can eliminate any H2S formed.
ORIGINS: Hydrogen sulphide is a normal fermentation product of yeast – excessive levels of H2S are caused by non-optimal concentrations of amino acids in juice. Hydrogen sulphide can be also be introduced through use of insufficiently-purified carbon dioxide for carbonation and by microbiological spoilage of cider.
Flavour: MERCAPTAN Chemical name: METHANETHIOL
“Mercaptan, like drains or soft white cheese”
IMPORTANCE: Methanethiol is a component of the sulphury flavour character of cider. It is found in all ciders to a degree. Methanethiol is an off-flavour when present in cider in excess. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help control formation of mercaptans in ciders.
ORIGINS: Methanethiol arises in cider production through yeast autolysis at the end of fermentation or during maturation. Formation of high levels of mercaptans by yeast can be indicative of a deficiency of amino acids in the apple juice.