Sensory training kit used to train professional water tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of ten different water flavour notes.
Use this set of certified water flavour standards to deliver up to two hours of taster training for ten people, or as a personal flavour training kit, allowing you to train yourself to recognize each of the ten flavour notes over a longer period of time.
The AROXA™ Uno Beer Flavour Standards kit comes complete with a presentation box and informative flavour cards for each standard.
AROXA™ certified water flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don’t forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.
The importance and origins of each flavour are:
Flavour: CHLOROPHENOL Chemical name: 2,6-DICHLOROPHENOL
“Chlorophenol, like antiseptic, disinfectant or mouthwash”
IMPORTANCE: Chlorophenols are disinfection by-products. They impart unpleasant ‘tainted’ notes to water. Waters containing chlorophenols are ddescribed by consumers as ‘medicinal’ or ‘contaminated’, even at low levels.
ORIGINS: Chlorophenols are produced in water through reactions involving phenolic compounds (for example from waters associated with peaty soils) and free chlorine. They can also arise through to contamination of water with wood preservatives.
Flavour: ROTTEN VEGETABLE Chemical name: DIMETHYL DISULPHIDE
“Rotten vegetable, like pickled vegetables or a sewage treatment plant”
IMPORTANCE: Dimethyl disulphide Imparts an unpleasant reduced sulphur note, reminiscent of decaying vegetation. The intensity of the odour can be increased by the presence of other sulphur compounds.
ORIGINS: Dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) is formed through biochemical decay of grass and vegetation in reservoirs and lakes, or by metabolism of bacteria or moulds.
Flavour: ONION Chemical name: DIMETHYL TRISULPHIDE
“Onion, like fried onion or garlic”
IMPORTANCE: Imparts an unpleasant ‘swampy’ odour to water. The intensity of the odour can be increased by the presence of other sulphur compounds.
ORIGINS: Dimethyl trisulphide is formed through decay of grass and vegetation in reservoirs and lakes and by bacterial action. It can also arise from decomposition of algae following an episode of algal bloom.
Flavour: METALLIC Chemical name: FERROUS SULPHATE
“Metallic, like ink or blood”
IMPORTANCE: Ferrous ions Impart a metallic mouthfeel to water. High levels of ferrous ions may be associated with discolouration of the water supply and – in the extreme – the formation of ‘red water’. Addition of one capsule of this flavour standard to one litre of water produces a colourless solution, whereas use of two capsules in one litre of water produces a discoloured solution.
ORIGINS: Metallic taints are derived from contamination of water with metal ions, either from natural ground and soil conditions or from electrochemical or microbe-mediated corrosion of cast iron pipework.
Flavour: GEOSMIN Chemical name: GEOSMIN
“Geosmin, like sugar beets or damp soil”
IMPORTANCE: Geosmin imparts an unpleasant earthy odour to water which is reminiscent of sugar beets or damp soil. Extremely odour-active and for that reason one of the most common flavour faults in potable water.
ORIGINS: Geosmin is formed in water by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and algae. These can be found in lakes, reservoirs and water distribution systems. Geosmin is produced by both actively-growing organisms and through cell lysis and decomposition.
Flavour: H2S Chemical name: HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
“H2S, like boiled eggs or rotten eggs”
IMPORTANCE: Hydrogen sulphide imparts an unpleasant sulphury note to contaminated soft drinks. H2S is easily oxidized to less odour-active species, so its presence is indicative of the failure of water treatment processes or contamination arising during production of soft drinks.
ORIGINS: H2S is a contaminant of carbonated soft drinks which can be introduced through use of insufficiently-purified carbon dioxide. It can also arise through microbiological spoilage by bacteria, and through chemical reactions involving metal surfaces in canned products.
Flavour: EARTHY-GREEN PEPPER Chemical name: 2-ISOBUTYL-3-METHOXYPYRAZINE
“Earthy-green pepper, like green pepper or chillies”
IMPORTANCE: 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine is a potent off-flavour with a very low flavour threshold. It imparts an unpleasant earthy note to water which is reminiscent of green peppers.
ORIGINS: 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine is formed by Actinobacteria in lakes, reservoirs and water distribution systems. It may occur in admixture with other methoxypyrazines.
Flavour: EARTHY-COMPOST Chemical name: 2-METHYLISOBORNEOL
“Earthy-compost, like compost or peat, mouldy”
IMPORTANCE: Methylisoborneol imparts an unpleasant earthy odour to water which is reminiscent of peat or rotting compost. It is extremely odour-active and for that reason is one of the most common flavour faults in potable water.
ORIGINS: Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is formed by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and algae in lakes, reservoirs and water distribution systems. It is produced both by actively-growing organisms and through cell lysis and decomposition.
Flavour: SKATOLE Chemical name: SKATOLE
“Skatole, like animal faeces”
IMPORTANCE: In addition to contributing an unpleasant, somewhat nauseating, faecal note to water, the presence of skatole can also indicate contamination of the water supply chain with faecal bacteria.
ORIGINS: Skatole is formed by bacteria growing in water, or contributed, pre-formed, by ground water pollution. It is produced by bacteria from tryptophan.
Flavour: MUSTY-TBA Chemical name: 2,4,6-TRIBROMOANISOLE
“Musty-TBA, like corked wine or a damp cellar”
IMPORTANCE: 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole imparts an unpleasant musty odour to water which is reminiscent of damp cellars or corked wine.
ORIGINS: 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole is derived from methylation of bromophenols by moulds or Actinobacteria, primarily in water distribution systems.